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Conversations on HPT Archive

March 4, 2009 - - Anne Marrelli Interview [View Details]
Summary: The collection of data is an essential step in the systematic identification and analysis of performance improvement opportunities and the selection, design, and justification of interventions to address them. Data collection is also vital in evaluating the efficacy of the interventions after they are implemented as well as identifying obstacles to overcome or modifications required to increase their effectiveness. This chapter discusses factors to consider in selecting data collection methods and fundamental guidelines for the application of these methods. It also provides an overview of ten different types of instruments. Each overview includes a description of the method and a summary of advantages and disadvantages.

February 16, 2009 - - Roger Kaufman Interview [View Details]
Summary: Hosts John Wedman and Elliott McClelland interview Dr. Roger Kaufman, Distinguished Research Professor, Sonora (Mexico) Institute of Technology, Professor Emeritus, Florida State University, and Roger Kaufman Associates

February 11, 2009 - - Miki Lane Interview [View Details]
Summary: Job aids are dead! Job Aids are dead! Long live performance aids!

Now for all of you who have used or still use job aids, please don't
burn this chapter. While the title may be provocative, I postulate
that the term job aids has become genericised like the term Kleenex.

Like Kleenex, job aids has become a term we use when describing any
performance aid even if it has nothing to do with performance on the
job. While job aids have focused on providing the worker with
specific knowledge and skills to do the immediately required job
task, performance aids are any one of a number of different
interventions specifically designed to remove barriers to performance
as well as to facilitate performance. So I suggest that we now call
them performance aids to more accurately reflect the all-encompassing
usage they now enjoy.

January 26, 2009 - - Ryan Watkins and Doug Leigh Interview [View Details]

November 5, 2008 - - Patti Phillips Interview [View Details]
Summary: Measuring the success of human performance interventions takes on a variety of forms. Both qualitative and quantitative data, as well as financial and non-financial data, are necessary to report the complete story of success. The need for data that satisfy the taste of various stakeholders has positioned the ROI Methodology as a leading technique to measure human performance technology (HPT) success. The process is used to evaluate program success in private-sector, public-sector and non-profit organizations.

While return on investment (ROI) is the ultimate measure of program success, it is only one of six measures developed through the ROI Methodology. Other measures of success include participant reaction, learning, application, business impact and intangible benefits. These measures, reported together with ROI, represent the chain of impact that occurs as participants react to a program; acquire necessary knowledge, skills, and/or information; and apply this newly acquired knowledge. As a consequence, business impact occurs. To determine if the impact is greater that the cost of the program, the ROI is developed.

Whether working with e-learning, coaching, leadership, or process improvement initiatives, this approach to accountability develops results important to all stakeholders.

October 15, 2008 - - David Gliddon Interview [View Details]
Summary: Performance management systems provide organizations with a multi-rater approach to employee evaluation that: fundamentally encourages employee performance through motivation, enriches and increases the interdependent performance discussion through collaboration, ensures that both qualitative and quantitative appraisals are used, streamlines and coordinates the administration of the performance management system, links organizational goal-setting with employee objectives and expectations, focuses on employee development, is based upon an organization's economic need for profit and growth, effectively applies a legally defensible form of employee evaluation, and encourages positive perspective of an employee's merit.

October 15, 2008 - - Jessica Frumkin Interview [View Details]
Summary: Rewards, positive reinforcement, and incentive systems are often used interchangeable to describe a motivational intervention. However, each of these terms refer to three separate and distinct methods of motivating a population in order to achieve a goal. To ensure that an organization's success, it is necessary to understand each possible motivational intervention and which will provide the best results in a particular circumstance.

This chapter provides clear definitions for rewards positive reinforcement, and incentive systems, supported by real-world examples. Evidence from research and incentive design is explained.

October 14, 2008 - - Gene Kutcher Interview [View Details]
Summary: This chapter provides a step-by-step tutorial for the development and implementation of a 360 degree assessment and feedback program that can be implemented in virtually any work setting where key behaviors for successful performance can be identified and observed. A three stage approach is presented. In the first stage, a Critical Incidents method is used to define job success in behavioral terms. In the second stage, multiple witnesses to the job incumbent's performance assess his/her effectiveness according to criteria uncovered in the first stage. Finally, in the third stage, a supervisor or coach works with the incumbent to interpret the synthesized feedback and set goals for the future. The chapter summarizes research support for each stage of the recommended process, explores key methodological and cultural issues to consider, and provides additional guidance (including model forms and documents) for how to best give accurate and useful feedback to facilitate improvements in employee performance.

October 8, 2008 - - James Altschauld Interview [View Details]
Summary: The chapter is an overview of needs assessment. As such it: defines key terms including ones for which there is some confusion; describes the needs assessment process and general strategies for implementing activities to identify and prioritize needs; and offers ideas as to what might result from doing a needs assessment and how the outcomes relate to organizational improvement. To demonstrate the process, one actual assessment that had a major impact on the institution for which it was done is provided. Several models of needs assessment are covered with one being emphasized based on its prominence in the authors' work. Given that such assessments are not panaceas or cure-alls for problems, issues in doing them are briefly discussed as well as factors that seem to promote more utilitarian and successful efforts.

October 8, 2008 - - Judy Hale Interview [View Details]
Summary: Hosts John Wedman and Elliott McClelland interview Dr. Judy Hale, from Hale Associates, on the topic of her chapter, outsourcing. Outsourcing is a strategy for optimizing resources. This chapter discusses the pros and cons of using external resources (outsourcing) compared to developing internal capability. Outsourcing should force organizations to debate the issues related to investing in internal capability versus buying external capability. Outsourcing can be a quick fix to short term resource capacity demands; however, making it a long term strategy requires weighting the risks of relying on external specialists. The risks of specific note are loss of intelligence about ones own products, processes, andcustomers. Also, outsourcing requires skills in vendor management.

October 8, 2008 - - Bea Griffith-Cooper and Karyl King Interview [View Details]
Summary: Projects drive change and change is an inherent result of a project. Successful projects require change readiness to demonstrate sustainable outcomes. However, documented success rates for project change initiatives are low. Coupling the strengths of project management (PM) methods with change leadership (CL) strategies can increase the likelihood of project success. Change management (leadership) refers to a set of principles, techniques or activities applied to the human aspects (e.g. behaviors) of executing change in order to influence individual's intrinsic acceptance while reducing their resistance to change (Griffith-Cooper & King, 2007). Project management refers to the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements (Project Management Institute PMBOK® Guide, 2004). Adequately determining the overall project change scope can lead to a more accurate assessment of readiness and organizational capacity for sustained project success. The Change Readiness Rubric is a tool that leverages the strengths of CL and PM methods to inform project scope, readiness and capacity.

October 8, 2008 - - Michelle French Interview [View Details]
Summary: Employees engage in job crafting when they actively create what their job is physically, socially, and psychologically. Job crafting has been shown to be a means for effectively improving emotional well-being in organizations. The traditional view is that job crafting is a process in which employees engage without a manager’s involvement. Since all employees, under certain circumstances, are prone to engage in job crafting – formally or informally – it is typically wise for managers within organizations to understand how job crafting works. In order to help employees achieve emotional well-being in the workplace and the positive outcomes that go along with it (e.g., increased organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behaviors, and improved performance), it is important to craft jobs so that employees can use their greatest strengths. Job crafting has been shown to increase productivity, quality, and efficiency while decreasing turnover and absenteeism. This chapter examines the benefits of job crafting, how to design the job crafting intervention, and factors critical to job crafting success.

October 7, 2008 - - Christi Hegstad Interview [View Details]
Summary: Over the past two decades, formal mentoring has become recognized - both in the workplace and through empirical research - as a powerful and cost-effective career development intervention. By partnering experienced organization members with new or less-experienced employees, organizations - as well as the individuals themselves - may reap substantial benefits such as improved performance, enhanced morale, and greater opportunities for networking and relationship-building. A poorly designed mentoring program, however, can lead to numerous problems within the workplace and stunt future development initiatives as well. This chapter describes the variety of mentoring formats available, differentiating formal mentoring programs from informal mentoring and coaching. Theoretical perspectives of mentoring are explored, especially in relation to social exchange theory and effective design frameworks. Career counseling theory is also examined from a constructivist perspective. Potential benefits and drawbacks of mentoring, for both individual participants and their organizations, are outlined, followed by a review of mentoring specifically as a career development strategy. Strengths and criticisms of career mentoring programs, as well as recommended strategies for effective program design and implementation, are offered. Finally, suggestions for creating an environment conducive to successful career mentoring programs are discussed.

October 7, 2008 - - Ingrid Guerra-Lopez Interview [View Details]
Summary: What doesn't get measured, doesn't get effectively managed. In performance improvement, a professional typically conducts measurement in the context of a needs assessment, causal analysis, monitoring, formative evaluation, and summative evaluation. For example, in the context of needs assessment, measurement allows you to determine the gaps between current accomplishments and desired performance goals. In the context of summative evaluation, it enables you to determine whether these gaps have been reduced or eliminated through the performance solutions that were implemented. Moreover, those in charge of managing performance at any level and who may not even identify themselves as performance improvement professionals also depend--whether they acknowledge it or not--on performance measurement. Without accurate and timely performance feedback -- provided by ongoing measurement and tracking of performance indicators -- it becomes nearly impossible to efficiently and effectively see our progress toward desired ends. Likewise, making intelligent decisions about what to change how to change, what to leave alone, and what to abandon altogether also depend on performance measurement. Performance feedback therefore provides a unique and crucial role in the improvement of human and organizational results. This chapter provides guidance on how to establish performance measurement systems that support effective management and improvement of performance.

October 1, 2008 - - Scott Schaffer Interview [View Details]
Summary: Understanding how to support people working on teams has become a matter of urgency for many organizations. Globalization has created information, communication, and technological challenges and opportunities that require collaboration. Recognition of the power of team learning in such collaborations has much research suggesting ways to improve team learning processes and effectiveness. A review of more than a hundred studies identified three major categories of team process that consistently emerge: 1) identification and matching of individual goals and perceived interests and abilities with attributes of the team project; 2) formation of a group of individuals via project coordination, management, goal setting, leadership, resource provision, and several other such support systems; and, 3) completion of a project and the related documentation requirements and reflection related to project satisfaction and success. While all teams theoretically move through these processes there is great variation in the context or situations in which team work is performed. Performance support systems for teams should be focused on both individual and team performance and the related practices necessary to achieve results. An example of such as system is the cross-disciplinary team learning (CDTL) framework developed to guide designers of team performance systems, especially teams comprised of different disciplines and cultures.

October 1, 2008 - - Steven Condly Interview [View Details]
Summary: Incentive systems are motivation-focused structures designed to maximize improvements in employee behavior and/or decision-making to the benefit of the organization. They are specifically associated with particular goals or outcomes and thus are distinguished from the more general compensation systems. Though governed by different circumstances and goals, all incentive systems include common elements: goals, stakeholders, incentives, time frames, implementation and data collection procedures, and support structures. To the degree management and targeted employees negotiate the details of the incentive system, rely upon fair and reliable procedures, and incorporate system goals within the larger goals of the organization, the system can be a success. As with any system, potential pitfalls abound, such as offering unacceptable incentives, not communicating the existence of the program, or changing rules or criteria midway through without consultation. However, evidence is abundant that properly designed systems have positive effects that are reliable, replicable, and measurable.

October 1, 2008 - - Hillary Leigh Interview [View Details]
Summary: This chapter presents some of the issues and considerations for effective succession planning and management (SPM) interventions. It explores the uncertain nature of succession itself and research and practice-based evidence about key decisions involved in designing, implementing, and evaluating SPM programs; including the selection decisions, development strategies, and transitions. Next, the relationship of SPM programs with other workforce capacity solutions is examined, and some strengths and weaknesses of SPM initiatives are discussed. The chapter closes by providing a step-by-step heuristic to use as a basis when designing an SPM program and critical factors for success.

September 30, 2008 - - Frank Nguyen Interview [View Details]
Summary: Our collective inability to find the right information in a timely fashion happens so frequently that it become commonplace, expected and even accepted in most organizations. Electronic performance support systems (EPSS) serve as a performance improvement intervention to address this inefficiency. In this chapter, evidence-based practices on how to best design and implement EPSS, guidelines on when and how to apply to use it, and a recommended process will be discussed.

September 24, 2008 - - Marvin Faure Interview [View Details]
Summary: Appreciative Inquiry is a method for generating organizational change. At the same time it is also a valuable perspective or way of being that reflects a powerfully optimistic and constructive view of the world. Together, the perspective and methods of Appreciative Inquiry give us a useful tool for expanding our ability to introduce significant positive changes within an organization.

The approach focuses directly on shifting people's points of view, in order to help them to embrace possibilities previously considered impossible or utopian. AI seeks to generate change through engaging the whole system - including all those affected (whether formally part of the central organization or not) - first in imagining how much better it could be, and then in bringing it about.

Appreciative Inquiry can provide an effective counter-balance to the often negative perspective of traditional problem-solving approaches to change.

September 23, 2008 - - Jim Breaugh Interview [View Details]
Summary: Research has shown that job applicants frequently lack important information about positions for which they are applying. Research also has found that applicants often have inaccurate impressions concerning what these positions are like. Both of these conditions can result in applicants accepting job offers from employers for positions that are not a good fit in terms of the individuals' needs and/or abilities. This lack of fit can result in undesirable outcomes for both employers (e.g., employee turnover) and new employees (e.g., job dissatisfaction). The use of a realistic job preview (RJP) has been shown to be an effective recruitment mechanism for increasing the accuracy of applicants' job and organizational expectations. Possessing accurate expectations, in turn, allows job candidates to make more informed job choice decisions. In this podcast, I discuss why a realistic job preview has beneficial effects, how to design an effective RJP, and situations in which an RJP works best.

September 17, 2008 - - Tyrone Holmes Interview [View Details]
Summary: Hosts John Wedman and Elliott McClelland interview Dr. Tyrone Holmes on the topic of diversity training. According to the 2005 Workplace Diversity Practices study facilitated by the Society for Human Resource Management (Esen, 2005), two-thirds of surveyed organizations offered some type of diversity training for their employees. Unfortunately, this training does not always live up to expectations, especially when it comes to improving individual and organizational performance. One reason for this is that many organizations fail to take the steps needed before and after a training event to make sure educational content is transferred to the workplace in a way that significantly enhances performance. This chapter addresses this problem by introducing a three-phase Performance-Based Diversity Training Model that describes specific steps that must be taken before, during and after a diversity event to ensure it has a positive, measurable impact on employee performance.

September 17, 2008 - - Marvin Weisbord and Sandra Janoff Interview [View Details]
Summary: Future Search is a principle-based planning method that has been tested and refined since 1982. It has been employed with social, technological and economic issues in North and South America, Africa, Australia, Europe, India and South Asia. Participants find they can go beyond problem-solving to make systemic improvements in their communities and organizations in a relatively short time, even when there is conflict and uncertainty. Large diverse groups can achieve four simultaneous outputs from a single meeting--shared values, a plan for the future, concrete goals, and committed implementation.
Future Search relies on well-researched principles for helping people collaborate despite differences of culture, class, gender, age, race, ethnicity, language, and education. So long as the principles are honored, the method works equally well with business firms, communities, schools, hospitals, churches, government agencies, foundations and NGO's. Because Future Search is not tied to any one culture, requiring only that participants share their experiences, it has helped thousands of people carry out action plans they once considered impossible. This chapter is the most comprehensive short overview of the method that has appeared in print. It summarizes the history, theory, research, techniques, case studies, and conditions for success based on experience in cultures worldwide.

September 17, 2008 - - Dan White Interview [View Details]

September 16, 2008 - - Tony Marker Interview [View Details]
Summary: We all probably have a good idea of what culture is. After all, each of us is a member of many cultures, e.g., family cultures, ethnic cultures, religious cultures, national cultures, occupational cultures, organizational cultures, and others. Whenever a group of people are together long enough to have shared experiences - successes and failures - they develop assumptions, values, and beliefs that influence their behavior and guide their future decisions. These are the basis for the cultures which surround us and provide a context for nearly all that we do. No wonder then, that those of us who are interested in improving human performance, should be interested in culture, specifically in organizational culture. This chapter examines what organizational culture is, how we can analyze it, and what its impact may be on human performance.

September 16, 2008 - - Andrea Ellinger Interview [View Details]
Summary: The purpose of this chapter is to explore the concept of managerial coaching by integrating the recent empirical research that has examined the managerial coaching mindset, the catalysts for managerial coaching, the requisite coaching skills and effective and ineffective behaviors of managerial coaches, and the effectiveness of managerial coaching. This chapter also assesses the strengths and weaknesses associated with managerial coaching. It concludes with a recommended design, development, and implementation process along with critical success factors

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